In contrast, perceptive marketers leverage their understanding of attitudes to predict the behavior of consumers. When people are not motivated to process the message, simply the number of arguments presented in a persuasive message will influence attitude change, such that a greater number of arguments will produce greater attitude change.
A theory of planned behavior. Affective forecastingotherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitude change. Tannenbaum have proposed the congruity theory of attitudes which is similar to the balance theory. The central route is when the consumer is highly involved in every aspect of the purchase.
This is called the principle of consistency. Central values tend to establish our identity and gain us social approval thereby showing us who we are, and what we stand for.
Namely, since behavioral intention cannot be the exclusive determinant of behavior where an individual's control over the behavior is incomplete, Ajzen introduced the theory of planned behavior by adding a new component, "perceived behavioral control.
An example would concern attitudes toward a controversial political issue. Katz theorizes four possible functions of attitudes. The theory of reasoned action was in turn grounded in various theories of attitude such as learning theories, expectancy-value theories, consistency theories, and attribution theory.
Using the results of a multiattribute model, a marketer can develop and market new attributes to existing products. Social Psychology 4th edition. Results from a multiattribute will reveal several pieces of information that can be used in various marketing applications.
Retrieved October 2,from http: Robert Zajonc showed that people were more likely to have a positive attitude on 'attitude objects' when they were exposed to it frequently than if they were not.
A consumer following the central route extends extra effort in researching and understanding the products or services. The peripheral route—as the name implies—is followed by a consumer with low involvement in the purchase process.
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. Value-expressive versus utilitarian advertising appeals: Perceived wisdom is that if people are informed of the source of a message before hearing it, there is less likelihood of a sleeper effect than if they are told a message and then told its source.
Then imagine you go on to say: The characteristics of a message are important because one message can elicit different levels of emotion for different people. Experimental research into the factors that can affect the persuasiveness of a message include: We are more likely to use the ego-defensive function when we suffer a frustration or misfortune.
For example, the Implicit Association Test IAT examines the strength between the target concept and an attribute element by considering the latency in which a person can examine two response keys when each has two meanings.
Attitudes are a learned predisposition to proceed in favor of or opposed to a given object. The major source characteristics are expertise, trustworthiness and interpersonal attraction or attractiveness.
While evidence is inconclusive, there appears to be potential for targeted attitude change is receivers with low political message involvement. Attitude Strength The strength with which an attitude is held is often a good predictor of behavior. Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and conative components.
Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation. The knowledge function refers to our need for a world which is consistent and relatively stable.
By contrast, an attitude will not be important to a person if it does not relate in any way to their life. For example, the Implicit Association Test IAT examines the strength between the target concept and an attribute element by considering the latency in which a person can examine two response keys when each has two meanings.
A counter-argument against the high relationship between behavioral intention and actual behavior has also been proposed, as the results of some studies show that, because of circumstantial limitations, behavioral intention does not always lead to actual behavior.
A more advanced and automated modeling technique, semantic clustering, is used to analyze and predict consumer attitudes. In this scenario, the consumer is influenced to purchase based entirely on their feeling regarding a particular product or service.
The low-involvement hierarchy consists of a cognition-behavior-affect order of events. The nature of the message plays a role in persuasion.
One such trait is intelligence - it seems that more intelligent people are less easily persuaded by one-sided messages. Essay # 5. Functions of Attitude: According to Katz, attitudes serve four important functions from the viewpoint of organizational behaviour.
These are as follows: (a) The Adjustment Function: Attitudes often help people to adjust to their work environment. In the following essay I will outline the different positions held regarding the importance of affect and cognitive processes in influencing attitudes.
It has been widely acknowledged through many studies that cognitive processes have a role to play in attitude formation. An understanding of the functions served by attitudes is important for attitude change procedures since a particular method may produce change in individuals whose attitudes serve one particular function, but may produce no change in individuals for whom the attitudes serve a different function.
Theories Regarding Attitude Formation And Function Psychology Essay. Print emerging from which are differing theories with regards their formation and function (Katz, ).
These campaigns frequently use emotion invoking tactics, but the level of information held by the individual regarding the attitude to be formed may highly.
Every attitude has three components that are represented in what is called the ABC model of attitudes: A for affective, B for behavioral, and C for cognitive. Although every attitude has these three components, any particular attitude can be based on one component more than another.
Forming and changing attitudes ATTRIBUTIONS Early theories of attribution The effects of bias Cultural differences feelings and past behaviour regarding attitude objects – they can also predict attitudes. Attitudes? Attitudes, Attributions and Social Cognition. Attitudes Attitude behaviour.Theories regarding attitude formation and function psychology essay